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Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Recently, much attention has been given to the problem of drug delivery through the cell-membrane in order to treat and manage several diseases.

Understanding the cellular internalization mechanism of nanoparticles is essential to study their biological fate.

Especially, due to the anisotropic properties, rod-like nanoparticles have attracted growing interest for the enhanced internalization efficiency with respect to spherical nanoparticles.

These findings provide new perspectives on modulating the bioactivity of Ag-NPs by using carbohydrates. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in particular, show excellent anti-microbial properties and therefore are rapidly being incorporated into a wide array of consumer products such as textiles, cosmetics or packaging materials, increasing the likelihood of human and environmental exposure [].

However, Ag-NPs exist in variety of different sizes and shapes but also, very important, with different coatings.

Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in various products is resulting in a greater likelihood of human exposure to these materials.

Nevertheless, little is still known about the influence of carbohydrates on the toxicity and cellular uptake of nanoparticles.

Some drugs are large hydrophilic molecules showing major limitations for their penetration through the cell membrane.

Ag-NPs functionalized with three different monosaccharides and ethylene glycol were synthesized and characterised.

Oxidative stress and toxicity was evaluated by protein carbonylation and MTT assay, respectively.

Toxicity correlated to oxidative stress but not to cellular uptake.

Carbohydrate coating on silver nanoparticles modulates both oxidative stress and cellular uptake, but mainly the first has an impact on toxicity.